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1 Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; 2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; 3 Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; 4 Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029; 5 State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029; 6 Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 Abstract The Nihewan Basin is one of a series of East Asian Cenozoic basins, which is located in the transition zone between the North China Plain and the Inner Mongolian Plateau.

The Nihewan Basin sedimentary sequences are rich in mammalian fossil and Paleolithic sites, which has attracted the attention of geologists, paleontologists and paleoanthropologists, thus providing insights into our understanding of Quaternary land mammal biochronology and early human settlements in East Asia.

Indeed, the age estimates at Xiaochangliang and Gongwangling have been widely accepted.

Fossils of this fauna mainly came from the depth interval of 140~220m of the XSG section.

The XSG section(40°17'03"N, 114°42'57"E) lies in the eastern margin of the Nihewan Basin.

Here the Nihewan Formation has a thickness of 260m.

China is a key area for research into human occupation in the Old World after the initial expansion of early humans out of Africa.

Reliable age determinations are pivotal for assessing the patterns of human evolution and dispersal in this region.

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